我们必须拯救蜜蜂, 下面是我们如何做到这一点 "


本文来自thenextweb.com。源URL是: https://thenextweb.com/syndication/2019/01/23/we-have-to-save-the-bees-heres-how-we-can-do-it/

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种植对蜂友好的植物似乎是全球许多城市的新时尚。在英国业余园丁 经常尝试吸引 这样的昆虫, 而在法国, 农民们提供土地来帮助养蜂人 .在其他国家, 如加拿大, 城市采用授粉者.有些公司甚至承担 野花种植 努力。

但并不是所有的植物都能满足蜜蜂的营养需求, 有些植物在平衡蜜蜂饮食方面可能比其他植物更有用。

薰衣草吸引了各种各样的授粉昆虫, 被认为是最有利于蜂人的植物之一。它提供了大量的花蜜 (授粉昆虫的能量), 但它的花粉是营养不平衡的蜜蜂。demothène/维基共享资源

从早春到秋天, 授粉昆虫, 如蜜蜂, 使用植物以花蜜和花粉的形式提供的丰富食物资源。花蜜是所有昆虫活动所需的能源, 而 花粉是建筑材料的来源 特别是对幼虫来说, 以达到他们的最终成体形状。

护士蜜蜂摄入花粉、花蜜和水来喂养幼虫和消化过的化合物 是用来做果冻的.但它的热量值依赖于所使用的花蜜和花粉。



果冻是有机物, 由各种有机底物组成, 如特定糖、脂、蛋白质、维生素、氨基酸和酶。所有这些有机基板都是由特定化学元素的原子构成的, 如碳、氮、磷、钠、钾、铜和锌。

研究涵盖了 各种原子的比例 构成活生物体和他们的食物来源被称为生态化学计量或 生物化学计量.此方法用于 我们的调查 只有在花粉多样性和足够的物种组成的情况下, 蜜蜂的营养需求以及如何满足它们。

有一个重要的特征, 区分有机基板和原子。有机底物是可变的 (例如, 它们可能转化为不同的底物), 可能是利用现有原子产生的。

原子是不可变的--它们不能转化为不同的原子, 也不能由生物体产生。因此, 可变有机基板是由不可变元素构建的。但这与为生长中的蜜蜂幼虫生产优质果冻有什么关系呢?

糖--蜜蜂的能量来源--仅由碳、氢和氧三种元素组成。除碳、氢和氧外, 其他有机基板也是由其他元素组成的, 如氮、磷、钠、钾、铜和锌。这些其他元素的原子必须被纳入正在生长的蜜蜂幼虫的体内。

花粉是蜜蜂这些元素的唯一来源。因此, 为了生产出高质量的果冻, 花粉必须为蜜蜂提供所需比例的健身元素原子。而由各种植物物种产生的每一种花粉, 在这方面是否都相似?

好吧, 不。



我们的最新研究 表明不同种类的花粉元素组成不同, 因此提供不同比例的特定元素原子。这些比例对蜜蜂来说往往是不平衡的--它们包含的某些元素的原子太多, 其他元素太少。

Apiary of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University (Poland), where the study was performed. Pictured is the coordinator of the research project, Michał Filipiak. Paweł Dudzik; https://www.facebook.com/paweldudzikphoto/

Our results show that seven elements are particularly important for bees: sodium, sulphur, copper, phosphorous, potassium, nitrogen and zinc.

The atoms of these elements are often scarce in pollen but must be provided in high proportions in the food of growing bee larvae. However, the concentrations of these elements in pollen show high taxonomic variability, which means that some plant species produce pollen scarce in these important elements, while others produce pollen rich in them.

Imagine two pollen species: A and B. Pollen A is rich in sulphur but scarce in potassium and pollen B is scarce in sulphur but rich in potassium. To collect the sulphur and potassium they need, bees need to mix these two pollens.

Working on the research project. Paweł Dudzik; https://www.facebook.com/paweldudzikphoto/

Pollen mix

But not all plants produce pollen that satisfies the elemental requirements of bees and mixing of random pollen species is not enough. Therefore, plants should not be evaluated and planted as adequate sources of bee food based solely on the quantity of pollen and nectar produced.

Plantations of single-species crops could actually limit bee development. Instead, floral diversity may be necessary to gather the appropriate proportions of nutritional elements and the right mix of pollen.

Sunflowers produce pollen nutritionally imbalanced for bees. Cybertarge / Wikimedia Commons

A new factor explaining bee decline

Lack of plant diversity is suggested as an indirect factor responsible for the pollinator crisis. But we 透露 that the absence of the right mix of pollen is one of the main factors affecting bees. This may improve our understanding of pollinator decline and could result in more successful intervention strategies.

We propose that farmers, gardeners and cities grow plants that help honeybees provide a balanced diet for growing larvae. We know that such plants include clover, broad bean, poppy, gorse, turnipweed, common camellia, magnolia-vine, and about 10 other species, but we need more studies, focusing on various pollen-producing plants, including those pollinated by wind.

In particular, we propose planting such plants near areas of single-species crops to limit their negative influence on bee larval development. Additionally, bees should have access to dirty water, such as puddles rich in decaying matter or slurry.

These are willingly utilised by bees to allow them to supplement sodium, which is extremely scarce in pollen. If such a supplementation is impossible, honeybees should be provided with slightly salted water.

So if you want attract bees and give a helping hand to mother nature, think twice about that lavender and sunflower crop and make sure to add some clover and magnolia. The bees will thank you for it.的谈话

本文是从 的谈话Michał Filipiak, Environmental Biologist, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University在创意共享许可下读了 原创文章.


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